- who are we?


- membership


- meeting reports


- BPS definition and diagnosis

- Hunner lesion  
- disease activity and damage  
- video's of cystoscopies  

- new


- treatment

- diagnostic criteria  
- Hunner lesion  

- associated diseases

- confusable diseases  

- selected topics & books

- symptom score questionnaires  

- reports from other sources


- calendar


- useful links


- support organizations


- disclaimer

literature on mast cells relevant for BPS

ESSIC uses the name bladder pain syndrome (BPS) instead of interstitial cystitis (IC) and/or painful bladder syndrome (PBS):
click here
for more details.


  • Mast cells are essential intermediaries in regulatory T-cell tolerance.
    Lu LF, Lind EF, Gondek DC, et al. Nature 2006;442:997-1002
    • it is known that T-regulatory cells, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are able to prevent other immune cells from attacking healthy tissues
    • the authors demonstrate that the protective actions of T-regulatory cells depend on mast cells; so, mast cells do not only play a proinflammatory role in allergic disorders but also a physiological role to prevent immune-mediated tissue damage
    • IL-9 from the T-regulatory cells is probably involved in the recruitment and activation of mast cells to perform this protecting role
    • mast cells, like macrophages and dendritic cells, are thus not merely agents of destruction but ensure self-tolerance and tissue integrity through the maintenance of microenvironments where harmful immune responses are damped down
© 2004-2018 ESSIC - International Society for the Study of Bladder Pain Syndrome