- who are we?


- membership


- meeting reports


- BPS definition and diagnosis

- Hunner lesion  
- disease activity and damage  
- video's of cystoscopies  

- new


- treatment

- diagnostic criteria  
- Hunner lesion  

- associated diseases

- confusable diseases  

- selected topics & books

- symptom score questionnaires  

- reports from other sources


- calendar


- useful links


- support organizations


- disclaimer

literature on drug-induced cystitis and BPS

ESSIC uses the name bladder pain syndrome (BPS) instead of interstitial cystitis (IC) and/or painful bladder syndrome (PBS):
click here
for more details.


reviews on drug-induced cystitis
ketamine (used as recreational drug)
  • Ketamine-Associated Ulcerative Cystitis: A New Clinical Entity.
    Shahani R, Streutker C, Dickson B, Stewart RJ. Urology 2007;69:810-2
    • ketamine is an anesthetic agent that is increasingly being used as a recreational drug
    • the authors describe a series of 9 patients, all of whom were daily ketamine users, who presented with severe dysuria, frequency, urgency, and gross hematuria; the urine cultures were sterile in all cases
    • CT revealed marked thickening of the bladder wall, a small capacity, and perivesicular stranding, consistent with severe inflammation; at cystoscopy, all patients had severe ulcerative cystitis.
    • biopsies in 4 patients revealed epithelial denudation and inflammation with a mild eosinophilic infiltrate
    • cessation of ketamine use, with the addition of pentosan polysulfate, appeared to provide some symptomatic relief
tiaprofenic acid

The non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug tiaprofenic acid may cause cystitis that is very similar to PBS/IC. Most cases are reversible on withdrawal of the drug.

  • Cystitis associated with tiaprofenic acid: a survey of British and Irish urologists.
    Henley MJ, Harriss D, Bishop MC. Br J Urol 1997;79:585-7
    • the authors conclude that tiaprofenic acid has caused at least 108 cases of cystitis and several of these patients underwent extensive urological surgery based on the assumption that they were suffering from chronic interstitial cystitis
    most cases were reversible on withdrawal of tiaprofenic acid, but 10% of patients had residual symptoms
    • tiaprofenic acid caused a higher incidence of cystitis than any other NSAID and its withdrawal from the market should be considered according to the authors
  • Expression of fractalkine and fractalkine receptor in urinary bladder after cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis.
    Yuridullah R, Corrow KA, Malley SE, et al. Auton Neurosci 2006;126-127:380-9. Epub 2006 May 2.
    • this study demonstrated upregulation of the chemokine, fractalkine, in the urinary bladder and specifically in the urothelium with CYP-induced cystitis
    • chemokines, and specifically, fractalkine, may be another class of neuromodulatory agents upregulated in the urinary bladder that can affect micturition function and sensory processing with cystitis and may represent novel, drug targets for cystitis
eosinophilic cystitis

see also: eosinophlic cystitis not induced by drugs

  • Eosinophilic cystitis induced by penicillin.
    Tsakiri A, Balslev I, Klarskov P. Int Urol Nephrol 2004;36:159-61
    • a 30-year-old woman developed classic symptoms of painful bladder disease and eosinophilic cystitis as an adverse effect of penicillin for abdominal actinomycosis; the symptoms were reversible after stopping penicillin
  © 2004-2018 ESSIC - International Society for the Study of Bladder Pain Syndrome