- who are we?


- membership


- meeting reports


- BPS definition and diagnosis

- Hunner lesion  
- disease activity and damage  
- video's of cystoscopies  

- new


- treatment

- diagnostic criteria  
- Hunner lesion  

- associated diseases

- confusable diseases  

- selected topics & books

- symptom score questionnaires  

- reports from other sources


- calendar


- useful links


- support organizations


- disclaimer

literature on confusable diseases misdiagnosed as BPS/IC  

ESSIC uses the name bladder pain syndrome (BPS) instead of interstitial cystitis (IC) and/or painful bladder syndrome (PBS):
click here
for more details.


see also: general literature on confusable diseases for BPS
  • A 73-year-old woman with chronic pelvic pain, burning toes, and an eighty-pound weight loss.
    Birnbaum J, Chai TC, Ali TZ, Polydefkis M, Stone JH. Arthritis Rheum 2008;59:1825-31.
    • an elderly woman is described with a 5-year history of chronic bladder and pelvic pain, an 80-pound weight loss, a small fiber neuropathy, and interstitial lung disease
    • laboratory tests showed a strongly positive rheumatoid factor, and positive ANCA assays associated with perinuclear immunofluorescence and antigen specificity for myeloperoxidase.

    • bladder biopsies containing bladder mucosa showed no specific abnormalities
    • a (false) diagnosis of IC/PBS was made; only after a cystectomy was performed, a necrotizing vasculitis of medium-sized arteries was seen that led to the right diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA); disease remission was obtained after adequate treatment for MPA
    • it is likely that if deeper bladder biopsies would have been done containing detrusor muscle at initial evaluation, the correct diagnosis could have been made 5 years earlier; moreover, the patient would also have received adequate treatment for a potentially fatal disease 5 years earlier and a cystectomy wouldn't have been necessary
  • Dysuria and a headache.
    Lo S, Noble J, Bowler I, Angus B. Lancet 2004;364:1554
    • a case report of a 49-year-old white woman with symptoms of recurrent urinary tract infections; she had no other medical history of note and she had not traveled outside of the UK
    • an initial diagnosis of interstitial cystitis was found to be wrong; despite she had no pulmonary disease, the cystitis was found to be due to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  • A referral center’s experience with transitional cell carcinoma misdiagnosed as interstitial cystitis.
    Tissot WD, Diokno AC, Peters KM. J Urol 2004;172:478-80
    • a retrospective review of patient records showed that between 1998 and 2002 a total of 600 patients were seen with the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis (IC)
    • six patients (1%) previously diagnosed as having IC were found to have transitional cell carcinoma as the cause of symptoms, 4 of whom (67%) had no hematuria
    • the authors conclude that patients with irritative voiding symptoms require a thorough evaluation which may include cystoscopy, cytology and upper tract imaging; they expect that the number of wrong diagnoses of IC would increase if the criteria to diagnose IC and initiate treatment were oversimplified
drug-induced cystitis
  • Eosinophilic cystitis induced by penicillin.
    Tsakiri A, Balslev I, Klarskov P. Int Urol Nephrol 2004;36:159-61
    • a 30-year-old woman developed classic symptoms of painful bladder disease and eosinophilic cystitis as an adverse effect of penicillin for abdominal actinomycosis; the symptoms were reversible after stopping penicillin
  © 2004-2018 ESSIC - International Society for the Study of Bladder Pain Syndrome